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What Causes A Read Error On A Linux Swap Device And How To Fix It

You may encounter an error code indicating Linux read errors for removable devices. By the way, there are several ways to solve this problem, we will talk about them now.

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    Udev is a special Linux subsystem that provides device events to your electronic computer. In simple terms, this means that this is a code that recognizes when devices such as a command card, external hard drives (including USB drives), mice, keyboards, joysticks, as well as joysticks, DVD-ROM drives are connected to your computer. etc. attached. This makes it a potentially invaluable utility, and it’s affordable enough that the average user can manually remove it to do things like perform certain tasks when a hard drive is plugged in.

    This article shows you how to create a working udev script that runs at a specific udev time, such as when a special disk is plugged in. Once you understand some aspects of working with udev, anyone can use it for most tasks, such as loading a certain trusted driver when a gamepad can be connected, or triggering emergency auto mode when a .base security reader is connected < /p>

    Script

    read-error on swap-device linux

    The best way to work hard with udev – do it in small batches. Don’t write the entire script ahead of time, instead start with something that usually confirms that udev only fires a few user events.

    Depending on the purpose of your script, there is no guarantee that you will ever see the results of the script with your own eyes. So make sure your script has been executed. Log files are usually located in the /var directory, but most often this is the domain of the root user. To test, use /tmp, which is usually provided to users and cleared on reboot.

    #!/usr/bin/bash



    /usr/bin/date >> /tmp/udev.log

    Place this in /usr/local/bin or the specified location in the default exe path. Name it trigger.sh and of course make it executable with chmod +x.

    trigger $sudo mv./usr/local/bin
    $ sh sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/trigger.sh

    This script is practically udev related. When the device is running, the script puts each timestamp in the /tmp/udev.log file. Check the illegal program yourself:

    $ /usr/local/bin/trigger.sh
    $ cat /tmp/udev.log
    Tue Oct 31 01:05:28 NZDT 2035

    Unique Device Identification

    To make your script more device-manageable, udev needs to know under what conditions it should also run the script. In real life, you can identify a flash drive by its color, brand, and the fact that you just plugged it into your computer. However, your computer requires different ranking criteria.

    read-error on swap-device linux

    Udev identifies devices by serial manufacturer, number, and even vendor ID and product ID. Since this situation occurs early in the life cycle of your udev script, you should be as broad, non-specific, and even global as possible. In other words and phrases, you must first accurately capture every valid udev event in order to call your script.

    Use the udevadm command to monitor how you use udev in real time and see what it sees when you connect so many different devices. Log in as root and try the app.

    • UDEV: Event passed to udev after e processing of rules
    • KERNEL: kernel event

    After enabling the udevadm module, plug in your USB flash drive and watch all sorts of information spill onto the screen. Note that the event type is the ADD function. This is a good way to indicate what kind of event the audience wants.

    The udevadm monitor command provides a lot of useful information, but you can now see it in a more convenient format consisting of the udevadm info command if you need to know where the USB drive currently resides in your /dev forest. Or unplug someone’s USB drive and plug it back in, then type the following command:

    $ su -c 'dmesg | tail | fgrep -i sd*'

    If it was the sdb command that returned: sdb1, for example, to find out that the kernel consists of a USB drive allocated to you and our own sdb tag.

    You can also use this lsblk command to list all drives connected to your system, including their partitions and therefore size.

    Now that you’ve confirmed where your drive is using your file system, you can get udev’s information about that device with the followingblowing command:

    # udevadm info -a -n /dev/sdb | less

    This returns a lot of information. For now, focus on the first information.

    Your task is also to select parts of the udev report by device, the vast majority of which are specific to that device. You need to tell udev to run your program when these unique attributes are encountered.

    The udevadm information process reports the device (specified by the path), then the device is “ascended” up the chain associated with the parent devices. For each software it finds, it outputs all possible attributes in key-value format. You can set up rules to match device attributes, such as attributes of a single device.


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  • Show device '/devices/000:000/blah/blah//block/sdb':
    KERNEL=="sdb"
    SUBSYSTEM=="block"
    DRIVER==""
    ATTRro=="0"
    ATTRsize=="125722368"
    ATTRstat==" 2765 5393"
    1537 ATTRrange=="16"
    ATTRdiscard_alignment=="0"
    ATTRremovable=="1"
    ATTRblah=="blah"

    A udev rule must contain an attribute outside of the same parent device.

    Parent attributes are always things that describe a device at the most basic level, such as something connected to a physical port, or something with a size, such as a removable device.

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